Session/Séance 1h: MusCan Panel 3a. Thursday/jeudi 25 May 2017. 10:30 am – 11:30 pm, EJB 225.
Sounding Canadian Assimilation.
Chair: COLIN P. MCGUIRE (University College Cork)
1. The Musical Making of Citizens Through Cultural Difference in Toronto’s Settlement Houses, 1920-39
Deanna Yerichuk, University of Alberta
This paper examines the musical beginnings of multicultural citizenship discourse in Canada by looking at the intercultural music programs in Toronto’s settlement houses during the 1920s and 1930s. Toronto’s settlement house workers, who were predominantly British, aimed to “Canadianize” the city’s poor and immigrant residents; in previous decades, workers used Western Art Music exclusively to assimilate participants into society. However, beginning in the 1920s, workers launched new programs that used immigrant musics as a technique to bridge cultural differences, and eventually celebrate diverse cultures publicly as constitutive of Canadian citizenship. The paper focuses on three immigrant-focused programs in Toronto that emerged in the 1920s: the National Clubs at Central Neighbourhood House; the International Clubs at University Settlement House; and the spring festivals of University Settlement House. The paper argues that these immigrant-focused music programs reconfigured notions of Canadian citizenship through musical activities that depended on, rather than erased, cultural difference. Toronto’s settlement houses initiated pragmatic cultural training programs decades before the rise of multiculturalism policy in Canada, suggesting that the arts-based inter-cultural programs of the settlement houses contributed to the conditions that made Canadian multiculturalism possible.
2. MacKenzie King, “The Message of the Carillon” and Noisy Campanology
Patrick Nickleson, University of Toronto
At the 1927 opening of the Parliament Hill carillon, Mackenzie King told the gathered crowd that the new Peace Tower “stands as a symbol of the spirit” of Canada. The bells were cast to replicate the forestroke of the Westminster Chimes so that when “we hear the striking of the hours and the quarters, we shall be reminded of [...] the bond of union between the community of free nations which comprise the British Commonwealth” (Mackenzie King 1927, 9). The harmonious affinity between bells and the community that they ring has a long poetic-oratorical history in Western-colonial nations. It stands in stark contrast with the experience of bells for Indigenous children living in residential schools across Canada at the time. While Mackenzie King claims that the bells guarantee “the authority of parliament,” bells in the schools reminded that even time was subservient to this colonial authority: “There seemed to be bells everywhere. There was the morning bell at seven ... a bell for breakfast, one for classes at nine ... and others too.” Another student remembers the bells as a sonic analogue to physical containment: “all around the schoolyard there were fences, beyond which we didn’t set foot. Bells were ringing all day long” (Driben and Trudeau 1983, 25). This paper examines the political-campanological history of inter-war Canada effaced by the “message of the carillon.” While most campanological literature considers the bells as signals of harmonious community, I put forward bells as discordant and noisy.
Session/Séance 1h: MusCan Panel 3b. Thursday/jeudi 25 May 2017. 11:30 am – 12:30 pm, EJB 225.
Challenging Teaching Chair: LORI-ANNE DOLLOFF (University of Toronto)
This past fall, during a music faculty meeting, one of my composition colleagues pronounced, “We are all teachers of teachers.” We are all, indeed, teachers of teachers. However, I became intrigued by how my colleague was defining teaching. Was this simply the recognition that students are learning from us and they will someday be teaching others? Or was there something more that spoke of philosophical commitments to one’s discipline and the human condition? In this presentation, I will discuss the imperative of faculty wide pedagogical dialogue at a time when institutions for higher education are under greater pressure than ever from ideological discourse. I do so, not simply because those we teach will become teachers, but rather because I agree with David Hansen (1994) when he writes that “The relationship between a teacher and his or her students is invariably a moral one” (p. 268).
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’s 94 Calls to Action have made specific demands upon the Ministry of Education (2015). The Education for Reconciliation section (Calls 62 and 63) calls for curriculum, funding, and teaching methods that support Aboriginal peoples’ contributions to the creation of Canada in order to build “capacity for intercultural understanding, empathy, and mutual respect” (TRC, 2015). While the Commission implores the Ministry of Education to take action for reconciliation, educators have a collective responsibility to consider the impact of the TRC within their own classrooms (Czyzewski, 2011). With Canada’s 150th anniversary approaching, my aim is to respond to the TRC by inviting my students to be a part of building a critical music classroom (Benedict, Schmidt, Spruce, & Woodford, 2015; Budd, 2008) that acknowledges our past and looks forward to our future.