Early in 2018, Tegan Niziol, Gordon E. Smith, and Margaret Walker joined forces to start a team project on current and ongoing conversations around undergraduate music curriculum and programmatic design and reinvention. Starting with the observation that there has been and continues to be considerable research on a range of related issues resulting in presentations, publications, and conference roundtables, we began to work on an inventory with a view to creating a living repository.

This annotated bibliography including research publications and presentations on undergraduate music curricula in North America is the result of our work. Since work on this topic is vast and new research appears every year, the bibliography is a “living document” that will continue to expand. Some of earliest material dates from the early 1970s, drawn from the Canadian University Music Society archives in the National Library of Canada, and the most recent is from only a few months ago. Yet, we are aware that the bibliography is partial, both in the sense of being unfinished and reflecting our own interests in music history and culture. Therefore, we eagerly invite input, including missing items from the past, corrections to existing entries, and of course new material drawn from all areas of music study. In accordance with a process similar to RILM, where individuals send in annotated items easily added to the repository by any member of the team, updating the document will be simple and straightforward. 

Research, of course, is itself a conversation, and the recent challenges we have all faced revising our teaching in response to the COVID-19 crisis and the growing work on decolonization in response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission are both examples of the importance of these curricular conversations. It is therefore our hope that this repository will assist in ensuring the continuation of robust and diverse work on music curriculum now and in the future.

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Undergraduate Music Curriculum Research Bibliography
in Reverse Chronological Order

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Figueroa, Michael A. 2020. “Decolonizing ‘Intro to World Music?’” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 10 (1): 39-57. http://ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/308.

In this article, Figueroa critiques the colonial underpinnings of “Intro to World Music” while arguing that a recuperated curricular framework can engage students in decolonial praxis via a focus on conversations about self and other. Within such a framework, students can develop a resistance to Eurocentric thinking, and instructors can facilitate encounters with “others” in the context of experiential learning projects. In this way, the teaching strategies Figueroa describes may help students move beyond a cultivation of oppositional or analogous thinking about culture (here is how “they” are different from or similar to “us”) to an aspiration toward relational thinking about cultural difference that is other-centered, rather than self-centered.

(summary sourced from abstract on journal website with slight adaptations)

Stimeling, Travis D., and Kayla Tokar. 2020. “Narratives of Musical Resilience and the Perpetuation of Whiteness in the Music History Classroom. Journal of Music History Pedagogy 10 (1): 20-38. http://ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/312.

Situated in departments and schools of music that have been designed to preserve, promote, and replicate the musical traditions of western Europe, the music history classroom is often deeply implicated in a project that centers whiteness and celebrates proximity to whiteness as an admirable goal for persons of colour. Our textbooks overwhelmingly feature the creative work of European and European American men, occasionally attempting to remedy these biases by including a person of color or a woman as a token. Although music histories often nod toward the oppression, exploitation, and death of musical African Americans, they seldom point to the individual choices that whites have made to create and sustain oppressive structures of white supremacy. Stimeling and Tokar suggest that a closer look at the 1740 Negro Code of South Carolina and its subsequent ban on the drumming of enslaved Africans offers a useful opportunity to introduce students to concepts of power and to begin important antiracist work in schools of music and music departments in the United States and elsewhere.

(summary sourced from abstract on journal website with slight adaptations)

Walker, Margaret E. 2020. “Towards a Decolonized Music History Curriculum. Journal of Music History Pedagogy 10 (1): 1-19. http://ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/ view/310.

 This article places questions of curricular revision in the current context of calls for educational reform through decolonization initiatives. Beginning with an exploration of what decolonizing education might mean, Walker then investigates the impact that the European colonial project might have had on the standard music history curriculum, uncovering an embedded teleological progression that supports European exceptionalism and culture superiority. A first step in decolonizing music history teaching, therefore, must be to make the historiographical foundations transparent through contextualizing Western art music history within a critical, global framework.

(summary sourced from abstract on journal website with slight adaptations)

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Attas, Robin. 2019. “Music Theory as Social Justice: Pedagogical Applications of Kendrick Lamar’s To Pimp A Butterfly.” Music Theory Online 25 (1). https://mtosmt.org/issues/mto. 19.25.1/mto.19.25.1.attas.html.

In this article, Attas considers the integration of social justice and music theory in the undergraduate music curriculum, through a case study of Kendrick Lamar’s hip hop album, To Pimp a Butterfly, which focuses on race and racism in the United States. Attas describes three different models of connecting social justice with music theory in the classroom: “plug-and-play”, “concept”, and “social justice.” In the plug-and-play” model, teachers use musical examples from the album to exemplify musical theoretical concepts. Although largely focussed on music theory and analysis, consideration of the lyrics in the chosen musical examples can lead to discussions of social justice. In the “concept” model, the curriculum is redesigned to focus on theoretical concepts such as phrases, cadences, and harmonic function, illustrated by diverse musical repertories, rather than specific genres of Western art music. As in the previous model, the social justice component can be explicitly engaged or remain in the background. The third and final model is driven by social justice concerns with lessons and assignments built around social justice topics, while also engaging students in theoretical analysis of the music. For each method, Attas provides pedagogical justifications, resources and lesson planning ideas, and advice on engaging with difficult topics in the classroom. 

Attas, Robin. 2019. “Strategies for Settler Decolonization: Decolonial Pedagogies in a Popular Music Analysis Course.” Canadian Journal of Higher Education 49 (1): 125-139. https://journals.sfu.ca/cjhe/index.php/cjhe/article/view/188281.

In this article, Attas discusses strategies for decolonizing teaching and learning practices in Canadian universities, specifically in Bachelor of Music degree programs which are grounded in Eurocentrism. Using a storytelling format inspired by Indigenous research and discursive methods, Attas recounts her process of decolonizing her special topics course on popular music analysis. The process included consulting with Indigenous colleagues, diversifying content, designing opportunities for critical discussion of Eurocentric analytical methods, employing pedagogical strategies to achieve a greater balance of power between teacher and student, and foregrounding decolonization as a course theme. Attas reflects on her successes, struggles, and areas for improvement.

Hoefnagels, Anna, Heidi Aklaseaq Senungetuk, Gillian Turnbull, Margaret Walker and Louise Wrazen. 2019. “Rethinking Priorities in Post-Secondary Music Curricula Today: Decolonizing, ‘Indigenizing’ and Visions for the Future.” Roundtable discussion at the 2019 Canadian Society for Traditional Music Conference, Legacies and Prospects: Pasts and Futures in Music, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, May 24-26, 2019.

With recent decrees to “indigenize” the academy in response to the 94 recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation in Canada, coupled with querying of white privilege in the academy (and western society at large), we are challenged to decolonize music curricula in broad terms, accounting for diverse traditions, experiences and priorities of our students and the music communities with which we work. This roundtable comprised ethnomusicologists who have been grappling with the challenges of delivering foundational training in music, in ways that are responsive to the diversity of the student body and the valuing of different music cultures. Speaking from the perspectives of teaching historical musicology, ethnomusicology, popular music, and Indigenous music courses, the panelists engaged with questions about diversity, inclusion, decolonization, indigenization, and the effect of coloniality on post-secondary music programs in Canada.

(summary sourced from abstract in conference program with slight adaptations)

National Association of Schools of Music. 2019. Handbook 2018-19. Reston, Virginia: National Association of Schools of Music. 

The NASM handbook contains the most current standards for accredited institutional membership for degree- and non-degree-granting institutions in music. It also contains statements of NAMS’s constitution, bylaws, ethics codes, procedures, and rules. The latest version of the NASM handbook is released annually. 

Pegley, Kip, Margaret E. Walker, and Robin Attas. 2019. “Classroom & Curriculum: Current Thoughts on Teaching Colonialism & Gender in Musicology.” Panel session at the AMS-NYSSL Annual Meeting 2019, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, April 16-17. 

This panel presentation included two papers given by Margaret Walker and Kip Pegley followed by a critical response by Robin Attas, positioning the two papers within broader educational developments in North America. Citations for the individual papers of Walker and Pegley are listed below. Walker argued that the canon of works and composers that comprise current music history curricula was created in the context of European colonialism. Accordingly, in order to decolonize music history curriculum in response to the 2015 Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, teachers must firmly situate music history within its colonial context. Pegley discussed his experience employing the ICE approach (Young and Wilson, 2000) in undergraduate seminars, which assists students in identifying and understanding ideas, making connections between ideas, and extending their knowledge and understanding. Pegley described his use of the ICE approach to help students read critically, focus their ideas for writing papers, and understand the value of “older” readings which may not seem immediately relevant. To demonstrate the value of the ICE model, Pegley explained how the ICE model encourages students to make meaningful connections with Frith and McRobbie’s article “Rock and Sexuality” (1978).

Walker, Margaret. 2019. “Music, History, and Colonialism: Thoughts on Decolonizing Content and Curriculum.” Paper presented at the AMS-NYSSL Annual Meeting 2019, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, April 16-17.

Pegley, Kip. 2019. “From the Bay City Rollers to One Direction: Three Ways to Use the ICE Approach in an Undergraduate Popular Music Seminar.” Paper presented at the AMS-NYSSL Annual Meeting 2019, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, April 16-17.

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Allen, Aaron S. 2017. “Greening the Curriculum: Beyond a Short Music History in Ecomusicology.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 8 (1): 91-109. https://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/218.

In this article, Allen discusses strategies for incorporating ecomusicology into the undergraduate music curriculum and accompanying challenges. The author provides an overview of the field of ecomusicology, pointing out that the majority of ecomusicology literature deals with music from after the year 1800. The syllabus of his own course “Music and Environment,” demonstrates the problem of the “short music history” in ecomusicology by focussing almost entirely on contemporary musical activity. The author critiques his syllabus and proposes a few possibilities for curricular revision to broaden the scope of engagement with music and the environment. Specifically, the author suggests that instructors can “green” the pre-1800 content of music history surveys by studying the physical materials used in music-making, and the idea of nature as it appears in texts, lyrics, and philosophy. The author concludes by discussing some of the benefits of including ecomusicology in the curriculum, such as providing a space for meaningful experiences, facilitating the examination of human-nature relationships; and promoting critical thinking in an interdisciplinary subject that can find a place in the music history or broader liberal arts curriculum. 

Madrazo, Lorenzo. 2017. “Surveying Multicultural Courses in Canadian Music Teacher Education Programs: A Theme Calling for Future Variations.” The Canadian Music Educator 59 (1): 17-22.

This study surveyed multicultural music education courses in Canadian post-secondary institutions. Madrazo defines multicultural courses “as any music or education course that provides students the opportunity to develop an appreciation for music and culture outside the Western classical and Jazz traditions” (18). The study identified a great variety of multicultural courses for music education students in Canadian universities including courses in ethnomusicology, history, Canadian music, composition, performance, education, and interdisciplinary topics. The author proposes that this data may help guide post-secondary curriculum development and suggests that future research may investigate if these courses successfully prepare pre-service teachers for teaching a diverse body of students.

Moore, Robin D., ed. 2017. College Music Curricula for a New Century. New York: Oxford University Press.

In response to ardent calls for change, this collection of essays offers practical proposals for innovative changes to college music curricula in the U.S. Although the authors represent various specialties (ethnomusicology, music education, theory/composition, professional performance, and administration), primary focus is directed towards performance degrees. The essays examine new and innovative curriculum models, institutional structures, and case studies,

Thomas, Susan. 2017. “Ibero-American Music and the Music History Curriculum: Reform, Revolution and the Pragmatics of Change.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 7 (2): 94-98. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/205.

This article introduces a roundtable on the inclusion of Latin American and Iberian musics in undergraduate and graduate curricula. Contributions were made by Drew Edward Davies, Ana R. Alonso-Minutti, Jacqueline Avila, and Alejandro L. Madrid. Citations for the individual contributions are listed below. Davies reflects on how Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin American musics are typically treated as peripheral or supplemental topics in music history texts and the discipline of musicology more broadly. He discusses how resources from the digital humanities such as digitized primary source materials and online databases can help instructors teach Iberian and Latin American topics as critical components of music history. Alonso-Minutti discusses how studying musical cultures at the U.S.-Mexico border challenges nation-based categorizations in historical narratives and facilitates student engagement with Hispanic musics and issues of the “here and now” pertaining to class, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. Avila discusses socially and culturally contextualized teaching of Latin American and Iberian film music in both film and non-film specific music history classes. She provides examples and methodologies drawn from her own teaching practice. In the final contribution, Madrid cautions against diversifying the canon through expansion because this practice can maintain the problematic value systems at the core of the canon. Instead, Madrid suggests a “transhistorical approach” to the study of music, in which connections are drawn between common subjects from different points in time, disrupting the teleological chronology of typical historical narratives. 

Includes the following papers:

Davies, Drew Edward. 2017. “The Digital Humanities and Teaching Iberian and Latin American Music History.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 7 (2): 99-105. http://ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/235.

Alonso-Minutti, Ana R. 2017. “The ‘Here and Now’: Stories of Relevancy from the Borderlands.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 7 (2): 106-111. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/236.

Avila, Jacqueline. 2017. “Using Latin American and Iberian Film Music: Classroom Methodologies.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 7 (2): 112-123. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/237.

Madrid, Alejandro L. 2017. “Diversity, Tokenism, Non-Canonical Musics, and the Crisis of the Humanities in U.S. Academia.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 7 (2): 124-129. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/238.


Walker, Margaret, Betty Anne Younker, Patrick Schmidt, and Glen Carruthers. 2017. “An Irresistible Invitation for Curricular Creativity: Reimagining Music Programs for the 21st Century.” Roundtable discussion at the 2017 Canadian University Music Society Annual Conference, Canada 150: Music and Belonging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, May 25-27, 2017.

This roundtable considered possibilities for curricular innovation in light of recent discussions about the relevance and sustainability of post-secondary music programs in North America. Margaret Walker initiated the discussion with a summary of the key points from the recent 2016 College Music Society’s Summit 21st Century Music School Design and their application in Canadian contexts. Betty Anne Younker also spoke about the Summit, specifically addressing discussions of curricular innovation. Patrick Schmidt then discussed the 2015 restructuring of the Masters of Music in Education program at Western University which allows significant flexibility in numerous parameters of the degree. Concluding the roundtable, Glen Carruthers articulated the challenges facing universities and proposed future directions, drawing on recent developments at Wilfred Laurier University.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

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Wells, Elizabeth Anne. 2016. “Foundation Courses in Music History: A Case Study.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 6 (1): 41-56. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/ %20view/185.

In this article, Wells discusses the value of First-Year Foundation or Introduction to University courses, which aim to equip students with the necessary skills to be successful in undergraduate programs. Although these courses typically teach general writing, research, and critical thinking skills, Wells designed and implemented a foundation course specifically intended for music students to prepare them for future music history courses. Her course, “Introduction to Music History and Literature,” was aimed at not only developing research skills, but also expanding knowledge of repertoire in relation to major social, cultural, and political themes; introducing historical periods, styles and genres; and teaching basic analytical skills. The course is delivered through lecture, discussion, and video content, and the assignments encourage students to connect their own prior musical experiences and knowledge to course material.

Wright, Jeffrey. 2016. “Teaching Research and Writing Across the Mighty History Curriculum.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 7 (1): 35-42. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/%20jmhp/article/view/193.

In this article, Wright suggests a multi-semester approach to teaching bibliographic, research, and writing skills within the sequence of music history survey courses required by most Bachelor of Music programs. Drawing on the methodology of backward design and the Dick and Carey model of instructional design, Wright outlines a three-semester curriculum plan in which four main skills/topics are introduced, reinforced, and mastered at different points throughout the sequence: identifying resources, identifying/understanding elements of an argument, evaluating resources, and writing. This approach has many potential benefits, such as allowing students more time to develop important skills, and more opportunity for instructors to detect specific problems in the learning the process. 

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Bakkum, Nathan C. 2015. “A Concentric Model for Jazz History.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (2): 5-22. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/147.

In contrast to the typical narrative histories of jazz that present a chronology of important individuals, Bakkum suggests a “concentric” model of jazz history that recognizes the collective nature of jazz by emphasizing the complex interactions between various agents in the music-making process. In addition to focussing on relationships, this model also recognizes the disrupted chronology of jazz history by considering how recordings allow music from the past and present to exist and relate to one another in the same sonic space. Building on the work of Travis A. Jackson, Bakkum’s concentric model places performers at the center, with bandleaders, recordists, audiences, and critics representing successive rings around the center. After considering the dominant narratives of jazz and ethnographic approaches that challenge these narratives, Bakkum addresses the pedagogical significance of his work by discussing how he designs his courses with the concentric model.

Baumer, Matthew. 2015. “A Snapshot of Music History Teaching to Undergraduate Music Majors, 2011-2012: Curricula, Methods, Assessment, and Objectives.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (2): 23-47. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article /view/165

This article summarizes the author’s empirical research project aimed at gathering descriptive data on curricular design, teaching methods, assessment, and objectives for undergraduate music history courses in the 2011-2012 academic year. Based on a survey of 232 music history teachers from 204 North American institutions, the most common component of the music history curriculum was the historical survey of Western art music. The curriculum of 81 schools contained only a chronological survey. 37 schools added an introductory course to the survey, and 21 schools added a selection of topics courses. Lectures and examinations were the most common and/or significant methods of teaching and assessment. Strongly preferred course objectives included chronologically outlining the history of Western art music, studying music’s cultural contexts, and identifying/describing important composers.

MacDonald, Michael, William Richards, Tom Van Seters, Craig Brenan, and Paul Johnston. 2015. “Pop Music at the Center: Popular Music in Higher Education.” Roundtable discussion at the 2015 Canadian University Music Society Annual Conference in Coordination with Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, June 3-5, 2015.

This roundtable focussed on the creation of a popular music education that shapes musicians to be critical, creative, and contributing members of the popular music industry. Specific topics of discussion included the development of the Popular Music School, current curricular and pedagogical developments, and strategies for overcoming the challenges introduced by change. Each contributor shared their unique perspectives, representing specialities in cultural studies, music theory, performance, pedagogy, and the recording industry. 

(based on abstract provided in conference program)

Roust, Colin. 2015. “The End of the Undergraduate Music History Sequence?” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (2): 49-51. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/ 174.

This article introduces a roundtable discussing the role of the undergraduate music history sequence, as well as curricular modifications and alternatives. Contributions were made by Douglass Seaton, J. Peter Burkholder, Melanie Lowe, and Don Gibson. Citations for the individual contributions are listed below. Douglass Seaton asks a series of thought-provoking questions about the aims and methods of both doing and teaching music history. J. Peter Burkholder discusses the value of the music history survey course as a conceptual framework that students can use to historically contextualize music. Melanie Lowe describes the newly redesigned music history curriculum at Vanderbilt University which replaced the typical chronological survey with a four-course sequence that emphasizes the development of musicological skills. Finally, Don Gibson reviews the NASM standards for undergraduate music history to show that the standards specify goals, but not procedures or models. Thus, while ensuring that music history remains part of curricula, the NASM guidelines allow institutions and instructors significant freedom in designing music history curricula.

Includes the following papers:

Seaton, Douglass. 2015. “Reconsidering Undergraduate Music History: Some Introductory Thoughts.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (2): 53-56. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/%20article/view/176.

Burkholder, J. Peter. 2015. “The Value of a Music History Survey.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (2): 57-63. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/175.

Lowe, Melanie. 2015. “Rethinking the Undergraduate Music History Sequence in the Information Age.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (2): 65-71. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/%20article/view/177.

Gibson, Don. 2015. “The Curricular Standards of NASM and their Impact on Local Decision Making.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (2): 73-76. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/%20article/view/180.


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Blake, David K. 2014. “Introduction: Towards a Critical Pedagogy for Undergraduate Popular Music History Courses in the Twenty-First Century.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (1): 99-102. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/164.

This article introduces a roundtable that discusses different approaches to teaching and developing undergraduate popular music history courses, with a focus on contemporary, twenty-first-century music. Contributors to the roundtable include David K. Blake, Loren Kajikawa, Justin D. Burton, Andrew Flory, and Joanna Love and citations for the individual contributions are listed below. Blake argues that popular music narratives based on rock music do not adequately reflect the rise of other popular genres such as hip hop. He proposes a method of teaching popular music history focussed on technological change, that does not equate rock music with popular music, but rather conceives of rock music as a “historically delimited” form of popular music. Kajikawa discusses a critical pedagogy for teaching rap and hip-hop that treats these genres as serious artistic practices and considers the ongoing cultural and racial issues that inform them. Burton explores topological structuring for popular music survey courses, disrupting familiar chronologies. Flory, co-author of the rock textbook What’s that Sound?, enters into a dialogue with Blake’s contribution to the roundtable with his own ideas concerning the relationship between rock and popular music, the purpose of textbooks, differences between courses aimed at music majors and non-music majors, and important issues in rock history such as nationalism, amateur culture, and performativity. Finally, Love also engages with Blake’s discussion of a materialist, technologically-oriented popular music history course, but broadens the scope to discuss many other factors that influence curriculum design such as available resources, time, class size, and student ability. 

Includes the following papers:

Blake, David K. 2014. “Between a Rock and a Popular Music Survey Course: Technological Frames and History Narratives in Rock Music.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (1): 103-115. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/149.  

Kajikawa, Loren. 2014. “Hip-Hop History in the Age of Colorblindness.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (1): 117-123. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article /view/160.

Burton, Justin D. 2014. “Topologies: The Popular Music Survey Course and the Posthumanities.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (1): 125-133. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/150 . 

Flory, Andrew. 2014. “Rock Narratives and Teaching Popular Music: Audiences and Critical Issues.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (1): 135-142. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/154.

Love, Joanna. 2014. “Beyond the Narrative: Considering the Larger Pedagogical Toolbox for the Popular Music Survey.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (1): 143-151. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/152


Miyakawa, Felicia M., and Richard Mook. 2014. “Avoiding the ‘Culture Vulture’ Paradigm: Constructing an Ethical Hip-hop Curriculum.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5 (1): 41-58. http://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/120.

In this article, Miyakawa and Mook consider the ethical challenges of teaching rap and hip-hop music. Specifically, they outline a self-reflexive approach that attempts to overcome the divide between scholars who “use” the music for their own academic purposes, and those practitioners fully immersed in the vibrant culture of hip-hop, which encompasses a diversity of meanings and functions in society. Their approach consists of three pedagogical practices: (1) learning from the “old-school” perspectives of hip-hop practitioners, (2) interaction with local hip-hop communities, and (3) participating in artistic practice.

Schepens, Eddy. 2014. “Différences de genres musicaux ou différences de pratiques? Une voie pour renouveler les pratiques pédagogiques en musique.” Les Cahiers de la Société québécoise de recherche en musique 15 (1) : 9-18. https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/sqrm/2014-v15-n1-sqrm02151/1033791ar/.

This article describes the music teachers’ training program at the Cefedem Rhône-Alpes in Lyon, France which admits students specializing in all musical genres. Building on a commitment to diversity, the program aims to introduce students to unfamiliar music in a practical way. The program replaces the typical notion of “musical genres” with “musicians’ practices” which focusses on musical procedures and interactions between musicians. The program aims to prepare music teachers to work in multidisciplinary contexts, cultivate musical diversity, and engage with different audiences. 

(summary abridged from the English-language abstract provided on journal website)

Walker, Margaret, Ellen Waterman, Jeff Hennessy, Mary Ingraham, and Susan Lewis Hammond. 2014. “What is the Value of a Bachelor of Music Degree?” Roundtable discussion at the 2014 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, May 28-30, 2014.

This roundtable discussion addressed the value of the Bachelor of Music degree which often needs to be articulated to parents and prospective students, or to institutional leaders during times of financial hardship and cutbacks. The discussion brought attention to the fact that there has been no systematic collection or dissemination of information about curriculum at the national level, making it difficult to address the learning outcomes, benefits, and value of the Bachelor of Music degree.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

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Brackett, David, Pauline Minevich, Margaret Walker, Ellen Waterman, and Gordon E. Smith (moderator). 2013. “Deconstructing the Curricular Canon: Looking to the Future.” Roundtable discussion at the 2013 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, June 6-9, 2013.

The aim of this roundtable discussion was to critically exam the “canon” of courses in Canadian Bachelor of Music programs in light of new issues that challenge the relevancy of university music programs including musical pluralism, competitive college programs, budgetary considerations, and the changing job market. The roundtable consisted of short presentations by participants representing the fields of composition, performance practice, theory, musicology, ethnomusicology, improvisation, and popular music studies.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

Hewitt, Michael, and Karen Koner. 2013. “A Comparison of Instrumental Music Methods Course Content at NASM-Accredited Institutions.” Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education (197): 45-61. 

This study analysed the curriculum of undergraduate instrumental methods courses at NASM-accredited institutions to determine which topics/areas within these courses receive the most emphasis. Based on data collected from 282 surveys, the study indicated that pedagogical topics receive the most focus.

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Kennedy, Mary Copland. 2012. “Comprehensive Musicianship, Interdisciplinary Learning and CAN-CON in the Choral Classroom.” The Canadian Music Educator 53 (4): 6.

In this article, Kennedy describes the comprehensive musicianship training of upper-year music education students at the University of Victoria. The author considers comprehensive musicianship to be an interdisciplinary and holistic approach to music education that avoids dividing music study into discrete areas such as history, theory, ear training, and applied lessons. Students at the University of Victoria are required to design comprehensive musicianship lessons for ensemble students in secondary schools. Astrid Sidaway-Wolf designed a unit focussed on James Gordon’s “Frobisher Bay” with a variety of musical assignments involving listening, composition, performance, and social studies. 

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DeNardo, Gregory, F., and Allen R. Legutki, eds. 2011. “Establishing Identity: LGBT Studies & Music Education – Select Conference Proceedings.” Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, no. 188, 9-64.

This source contains summaries of a selection of presentations given at the Establishing Identity conference held at the University of Illinois, May 23-26, 2010. The aim of the conference was to support discussion of LGBT issues and music education, addressing research, curriculum, teacher training, and the experiences of LGBT students and teachers. Citations for two of the individual papers pertaining to undergraduate music curriculum are listed below. Fred P. Spano presented on a study he conducted on sexual orientation topics in the curriculum of undergraduate music education programs. Spano analyzed survey responses from 102 music education program administrators (99 from the U.S., 3 from Canada) about topics of sexual orientation in the curriculum at their institutions and barriers for including these kinds of topics in the curriculum. The results indicate that although topics of sexual orientation are present in many music education programs, the extent and nature of their inclusion is not yet fully known. Barriers for inclusion of these topics include perceived lack of relevance, disinterest and lack of comfort on behalf of students and faculty, time constraints, university policies, and community opposition. The presentation by Bridget Sweet and Stephen A. Paparo addressed the importance of discussing sexual orientation in music teacher education programs and ways to facilitate such discussions. Strategies included familiarizing music education students with queer theory, engaging in critical questioning, and allowing time for reflection and synthesis.

Spano, Fred P. 2011. “The Inclusion of Sexual Orientation Topics in Undergraduate Music Teacher Preparation Programs.” In “Establishing Identity: LGBT Studies & Music Education – Select Conference Proceedings,” edited by Gregory F. DeNardo and Allen R. Legutki, 45-50. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education no. 188, 9-64.

Sweet, Bridget, and Stephen A. Paparo. 2011. “Starting the Conversation in Music Teacher Education Programs.” In “Establishing Identity: LGBT Studies & Music Education – Select Conference Proceedings,” edited by Gregory F. DeNardo and Allen R. Legutki, 51-54. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, no. 188, 9-64.


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Broman, Per F. 2010. "The Good, the True, and the Professional: Teaching Music History in an Age of Excess." In Vitalizing Music History Teaching, edited by James R. Briscoe, 19-26. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press. 

Considering the ever-growing body of rich historical knowledge, and the varied interpretations that accompany such knowledge, Broman suggests a two-pronged approach to teaching undergraduate music history. In addition to introducing students to musical materials in history classes, instructors should also be teaching students the skills and methods of musicology, to prepare them for lifelong learning. Broman illustrates his approach by describing an assignment he developed that requires students to perform in-depth analysis of a specific historical topic.

Cook, Susan C. 2010. “Teaching Others, Others Teaching, or Music History Like it Mattered.” In Vitalizing Music History Teaching, edited by James R. Briscoe, 125-138. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press.

In this essay, Cook questions pedagogical assumptions common in music history teaching and suggests alternatives based on everyday classroom practice. First she encourages music history teachers to critically consider what they are doingwhen teaching music history and why music history matters. Second, instead of attempting to present a comprehensive survey of Western art music, Cook suggests that it may be beneficial to present students with samplings of diverse music from which they can create their own aesthetic frameworks. Third, teaching students about historiography and the methods of musicology will equip them with highly valuable skills.

Douglas, Gavin. 2010. “Some Thoughts on Teaching Music History from an Ethnomusicological Perspective.” In Vitalizing Music History Teaching, edited by James R. Briscoe, 27-43. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press.

In this essay, Douglas suggests way of altering the teaching and learning of music history, inspired by values, methods, and textbooks drawn from the field of ethnomusicology. Specifically, Douglas suggests that textbooks on Western music history should begin by defining the field of study, tracing its boundaries, and discussing its value. Although there is a wealth of literature discussing the field of musicology, this information is not communicated to students in their textbooks. Douglas also finds that most Western music history textbooks prioritize works, genres, and styles, over acts of experiencing and making music. Following models and methodologies employed in ethnomusicology, Western music history texts and courses could encourage students to consider the non-sonic characteristics of music, opening the door to exploring the social complexities of music-making cultures. The non-sonic properties of music can also be used to structure courses thematically around themes such as nationalism, social identity, religion, or dance, highlighting the value of music in teaching students about the world.  

Elliott, Robin. 2010. “Teaching Canadian Music in Undergraduate Music History Courses.” In Vitalizing Music History Teaching, edited by James R. Briscoe, 163-76. New York: Pendragon Press.

In this essay, Elliott considers the inclusion of Canadian music in the music history curriculum of undergraduate music programs at a time when new repertoires are competing with the canon of Western art music for space in the curriculum (such as world music, popular music, jazz, and music by women), and when the role of canons is being questioned. Elliott proposes that the present may be an opportune time to introduce Canadian music into the curriculum as there does not yet exist a canon of Canadian music, and Canadian music is not yet part of the Western canon. Furthermore, teaching Canadian music facilitates grappling with issues of value, transmission, musical pluralism, and the historical and cultural contexts that shaped the formation of canons. Elliott discusses the benefits and drawbacks of two strategies for including Canadian music in the curriculum: adding Canadian content to music history survey courses, and teaching courses specifically devoted to Canadian music. Elliott concludes by sharing his own experiences teaching Canadian music courses at different universities.

Halley, Jeanne. 2010. “A Mysterious Lacuna: Reconsidering the Exclusion of French Baroque Music and Dance from the Curricula.” In Vitalizing Music History Teaching, edited by James R. Briscoe, 189-202. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press.

In this essay, Jeanne Halley reflects on the lack of consideration for French Baroque music and courtly dance in pedagogical materials for teaching undergraduate music students. Halley discusses the socio-cultural significance of French Baroque music and dance; the history of these art forms in the contexts of pedagogy, reception, scholarship, historiography and social history; and the critical new perspectives that French Baroque dance research can shed on musical repertories. Halley concludes by arguing for greater inclusion of dance in undergraduate music history courses. Her suggestions include increasing textual sources on this repertoire, as well as encouraging the performance of French Baroque music, theatre, and dance.

Parakilas, James. 2010. “Texts, Contexts, and Non-Texts in Music History Pedagogy.” In Vitalizing Music History Teaching, edited by James R. Briscoe, 45-58. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press. 

In this essay, Parakilas considers the differences between text-based music histories that focus on music with notated scores (exemplified by Grout’s A History of Western Music) and context-based music histories that focus on the relationships between music, society, culture, and politics (exemplified by Attali’s Noise: The Political Economy of Music), and how we might teach music history that incorporates aspects of both. Specifically, Parakilas argues that in teaching music history, we should focus on the complex relationships between text and musical performance within the Western music tradition. Some ways to achieve this include teaching students about the history of performance and musical interpretation and considering the ways in which the notes themselves and methods of notation embody ideas prevalent within a specific society. Parakilas ends his discussion with some thoughts on “non-texts” or musics without notated scores, including non-Western and popular musics. “Non-texts” are particularly fruitful to consider because they can initiate discussion on a range of topics including text, authorship, genre, influence, and the political economy of music. 

Prouty, Kenneth E. 2010. “Toward Jazz’s ‘Official’ History: The Debates and Discourses of Jazz History Textbooks.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 1 (1): 19-43. https://www.ams-net.org/ojs/index.php/jmhp/article/view/4.

In this article, Prouty examines jazz history texts intended for college students that have been published since the late 1970s. Prouty argues that the authors of jazz textbooks tend to locate themselves within the discourses that critique the canonical narratives of jazz history. After assessing the narratives, structures, and reception of major jazz textbooks from Jazz: A History by Frank Tirro, to Jazz by Scott DeVeaux and Gary Giddens, Prouty concludes that while authors of jazz texts are critical of the canon, their texts are largely driven by a canonical framework and do not demonstrate alternative approaches. 

Seaton, Douglas. 2010. “Teaching Music History: Principles, Problems, and Proposals.” In Vitalizing Music History Teaching, edited by James R. Briscoe, 59-72. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press.

As suggested by the title, this essay addresses some “principles, problems, and proposals” for teaching music history. Seaton’s principles state that music history should explore musical experience and that students should move beyond memorization and reproduction of knowledge to be active participants in the discipline. The problems Seaton identifies stem from the continuously expanding body of knowledge, resources, and critical approaches to music history that challenge our musical canons, and the ways in which technology has changed how people think about and experience music. Finally, the proposals, based in the principles and aimed at solving the problems, encourage teachers to value critical thinking more than comprehensive knowledge, to make use of resources beyond the textbook and outside the classroom, to engage students in critical discussion and writing assignments, and to encourage students to make music.

Trottier, Danick. 2010. “Gilles Tremblay pédagogue vu par ses anciens élèves.” Circuit 20 (3): 73-90. https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/circuit/2010-v20-n3-circuit3942/044862ar/.

In an effort to gain insight into the pedagogy of Gilles Tremblay, the author surveyed past students of the Canadian composer at the Montreal Conservatory of Music. Danick questioned the students about the content, objectives and structure of Tremblay’s courses, his methods for teaching analysis and composition, and the guest teachers and composers he brought in for his students. The article reproduces the responses of each of the individual students surveyed.

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Krüger, Simone. 2009. Experiencing Ethnomusicology: Teaching and Learning in European Universities. Burlington, V.T.: Ashgate.

This book examines ethnomusicological education in European universities and proposes a model of ethnomusicological pedagogy that “promotes in students a globally, contemporary and democratic sense of world musics, and is concerned with meaning, experience and expression” (12). The study is rooted in the idea that musical transmission is an act of cultural creation, and thus, the study of musical transmission can illuminate the meaning of music in people’s lives. The book is divided into four main parts. Part I focuses on the context, structure, and ideology behind the discipline of ethnomusicology.  Parts II, III, and IV consider the social and cultural significance of students’ listening, performing, and creating experiences in musical and ethnomusicological contexts.   

McLean, Don, and Dean Jobin-Bevans. 2009. “Survey of University-Based Music Programs in Canada.” Intersections: Canadian Journal of Music 29 (1): 86-104. 

This study provides an overview of basic information on music programs offered at Canadian institutions of higher education. Surveys were distributed between 2005 and 2009 to Canadian universities, colleges, and conservatories. The report summarizes data and information on enrolment, staffing, graduate and undergraduate program offerings, and facilities and events. The aim of the report is to share information that can be used to support and advocate for university-based music programs.

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Hoefnagels, Anna, and Gordon E. Smith, eds. 2007. Folk Music, Traditional Music, Ethnomusicology: Canadian Perspectives, Past and Present. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

(summary forthcoming)

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Lacasse, Serge, Rob Bowman, David Brackett, Norma Coates, Susan Fast, Kip Pegley, John Shepherd, and Will Straw. 2006. “The Place of Popular Music in Canadian Universities.” Panel discussion at the 2006 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting, York University, Toronto, ON, May 28-31, 2006. 

(further information currently unavailable)

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De Santo, William F. 2005. “An Analysis of Undergraduate Sacred Music Curriculum Content in Colleges and Universities Accredited by the National Association of Schools of Music.” PhD diss., University of Oklahoma.

This study surveys the undergraduate sacred music curriculum by analysing academic catalogs and the answers to a questionnaire distributed to seventy NASM schools in the United States. The topics that were considered the most important and/or received the most emphasis included applied voice, choral ensemble, organ literature, music theory, aural skills, senior recital, choral conducting, and hymnology/congregational song. Seventeen respondents suggested that the curriculum should be revised to include other musical styles, such as popular music, to maintain the relevance of sacred music programs.

Kennedy, Sanford Jay. 2005. “Paradoxes in Undergraduate Music Curriculum at Exemplar Music Schools in American Higher Education: Tradition and Irrelevance.” PhD diss., Boston College.

This study analysed the core music curriculum of Bachelor of Music degrees in a selection of exemplar institutions in the United States. The study found that most programs adhere to the Western classical tradition, and curriculum specializations focus Western classical and jazz music. Furthermore, despite the growth of music technology and business, few schools require courses in these areas.

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Andrews, Bernard W., and Glen Carruthers. 2004. “Needle in a Haystack: The Status of Canadian Music in Post-Secondary Curricula.” In Music Education Entering the 21st Century, edited by Patricia Martin Shand, 75-83. Nedlands, WA: International Society for Music Education.

This article describes a study that investigated Canadian music in post-secondary curricula in Ontario. Andrews and Carruthers conducted their study by sending a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire to the chairs, directors, and deans of music departments, faculties, and schools of music; and to music professors in faculties of education in Ontario. The study found that Canadian music courses are typically offered as upper-year electives. In terms of library resources, music library holdings on average comprise 6% Canadian music recordings and 12% Canadian music scores. The presence and amount of Canadian music in music libraries was strongly influenced by requests from students and faculty, and interest in Canadian music on behalf of librarians. Many universities have special collections of Canadian music and employ Canadian composers. Although education libraries reported a greater amount of Canadian music resources (32%), the study found that the music taught in classrooms by teacher candidates is largely influenced by associate teachers who may or may not choose to teach Canadian music. Furthermore, American band methods and repertoire tend to be the most popular music in secondary teacher training programs. Overall, the authors concluded that Canadian music is marginalized in post-secondary music programs in Ontario and further research is needed for the development of policies that could increase the amount of Canadian music in the curricula. 

Christensen, Beth. 2004. “Warp, Weft, and Waffle: Weaving Information Literacy into an Undergraduate Music Curriculum.” Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 60 (3): 616-631. 

This article details the instructional approach of the undergraduate music curriculum at St. Olaf College that integrates library skills and information literacy into music courses through a series of assignments that build upon prior knowledge and skills. The program is based on the core set of ideas that students need to be able to locate information, understand their research processes, and critically evaluate their findings. Appendixes include activities, goals, and sample assignments. 

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Elliott, Robin. 2003.“Cancon and the Canon.” Canadian University Music Review 23 (1-2): 201-213.

In this article Elliott reflects on the lack of Canadian content in music history textbooks and survey courses in Canada. When Canadian content is present in music history survey courses, it usually consists of a few token pieces from the twentieth century.  Elliott argues that Canadian music should be integrated across the entire chronological survey and provides many examples of Canadian connections and content that can be incorporated within all the standard periods of music history. He also describes ways of including Canadian content in introductory ethnomusicology courses aided by Kay Kaufman Shelemay’s text Soundscapes: Exploring Music in a Changing World.

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Burkholder, J. Peter. 2002. “Reconsidering the Goals for the Undergraduate Music History Curriculum.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings: The 77th Annual Meeting 2001 90: 74-79.

In this article, Burkholder proposes various changes to the curriculum of undergraduate music history courses considering the ever-growing body of music history, resources, and new topics considered important and worthy of study. Burkholder discusses three ways of combining a broad outline of music history with some in-depth analysis and analytical skill-building: first, instructors could abandon the survey and experiment with new course configurations; second, course material could be changed without changing course structure, while necessarily accepting that comprehensive coverage will not be possible; and third, instructors can shift away from teaching histories of musical style, to histories of music as a social phenomenon. In his own teaching, Burkholder has attempted to employ the third option by changing the narrative he teaches to focus on people and their choices, guided by musical and cultural traditions and innovations.

Doerksen, John, John Roeder, Gary Tucker, Caryl Clark, Stephen McClatchie, and Sandra Mangsen, 2002. “Balancing Professional Training and the Liberal Arts in Canadian Music Programs.” Roundtable discussion at the 2002 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, May 25-28, 2002.

This roundtable discussed balancing liberal arts, performance, and academic music courses in Canadian music programs. Roeder and Doerksen focussed on strategies for accommodating the competing demands of courses in these different areas. In support of well-rounded, versatile music education, Tucker considered ways of incorporating music within the wider university curricula. Caryl Clark approached the roundtable topic of curricular balance through the lens of innovation and collaboration in visual and performing arts programs. McClatchie discussed music history as a means of connecting professional and liberal-arts studies. Finally, Mangsen discussed the advantages of a broad undergraduate music program for students who intend to study music at the graduate level.  

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

Dolloff, Lori-Anne, and Jonathan Stephens. 2002. “Serving Two Masters: The Tensions of Music Education in the Academy.” Paper presented at the 2002 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, May 25-28, 2002.

In their presentation, Dolloff and Stephens discussed the tensions that arise based on the institutional placement of music education, which can vary from schools of music and conservatories to faculties of education, arts, and the humanities more broadly. Additionally, music education is often separated from other areas of music study by disciplinary boundaries. In response to these tensions, the authors suggest that the discipline of music education should focus on its own distinct characteristics instead emulating other music subdisciplines such as musicology or performance.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

Nelson, Richard B. 2002. “The College Music Society Music Theory Undergraduate Core Curriculum Survey – 2000.” College Music Symposium 42: 60-75. 

This study analysed 248 responses to a survey about music theory undergraduate core curriculum that was posted on the Cleveland Institute of Music website and advertised through College Music Society mailings and list-serve announcements. The survey addressed issues concerning faculty and students, teaching loads, degree requirements, curriculum, textbooks, and placement exams. Low emphasis on keyboard harmony and counterpoint were identified as key issues.

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Bakan, Michael B. 2000. “Keeping it Real: Ethnomusicology In, As, and For Multicultural Music Education.” Panel discussion sponsored by the Education Committee of the Society of Ethnomusicology at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Included the following papers: 

-Bakan, Michael B. “Teaching the Intangibles: Creating Balinese Time and Groove in the Multicultural Classroom.”

-Burton, J. Bryan. “A Light Touch, Please: Mastering Native American Improvisation and Ornamentation in the Multicultural Classroom.”

-Stephens, Robert. “Batá Drumming Cuban Style: The Beat Goes On.”

-Hebert, David G. “Music, Transmission, and Education: Contemporary Theoretical and Methodological Issues in the Forging of the Field of Comparative Music Education.”

Bomberger, E. Douglas. 2000. “The Composer Course as an Alternative to Music Appreciation.” Paper presented at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Bowman, Wayne. 2000. “Music Education and Post-Secondary Music Studies in Canada.” Canadian University Music Review 21 (1): 76-90.

The author proposes a series of reforms to the study of music education in institutions of higher learning. First, Bowman suggests re-evaluating standard disciplinary boundaries within music studies with the aim of enhancing integration and cooperative learning between music education and the other music subdisciplines. Second, Bowman proposes to broaden the conceptualization of music education beyond the notion of training, which focusses on developing skills and knowledge, to include an ethical dimension that focusses on developing character. Third, Bowman encourages universities to position music education as a site of rigorous academic activity, where pedagogical methods and curriculum content are thoroughly researched and theorized. Finally, Bowman suggests that while the discipline of music education has a responsibility to help revitalize deteriorating school music programs, the discipline should also prepare teachers for a variety of teaching contexts outside the typical classroom.

Briscoe, James, Anita Hanawalt, Richard Harper, Sharon Mirchandani, and Anthony Rauche. 2000. “Curricular Issues: Questioning the Canon’s Authority.” Panel discussion sponsored by the College Music Society at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Carr-Richardson, Amy. 2000. “Feminist and Non-Western Perspectives in the Music Theory Classroom: John Harbison’s Mirabai Songs. Paper presentation sponsored by the College Music Society at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Collaros, Pandel. 2000. “The Music of the Beatles in Undergraduate Music Theory Instruction.” Poster presentation sponsored by the Society for Music Theory at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Davis, Stacey, Linda Garton, and Eric Honour. 2000. “Rethinking Pedagogical Norms: Northwestern University’s New Approach to Teaching Music Theory.” Poster presentation sponsored by the College Music Society at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

De l’Etoile, Shannon. 2000. “The History of the Undergraduate Curriculum in Music Therapy.” Journal of Music Therapy37 (1): 51-71.

Motivated by the merging of the National Association for Music Therapy and the American Association for Music Therapy, this article traces the history of the undergraduate music therapy curriculum with the goal of providing direction for further development. The scope of the history extends from 1919, when Columbia University in New York offered the first college course in music therapy, to the creation of a nationally-recognized undergraduate curriculum in 1952, and concludes with the earliest revisions and developments of the curriculum in the 1950s and 1960s. 

Garrison, Karen, Lester D. Brothers, Deanna D. Bush, and John Michael Cooper. 2000. “Charting the Course: Intercultural Directions in the Gateway Introduction to Music at the University of North Texas.” Panel discussion sponsored by the College Music Society at the Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Gaunt, Kyra D. 2000. “The 2:00 Vibe: Mixing Cultures, Amplifying Gender, and Producing an Alternative Pedagogy for Popular Music.” Paper presentation sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Popular Music at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Hickey, Maud (chair). 2000. “Teacher Training and Curriculum.” Panel discussion sponsored by the College Music Society at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Included the following papers:

-Miller, Scott, L. and Margaret Schmidt. “Integrating Preservice Teacher Education with Technology: A Work in Progress.”

-Robinson, Mitchell. “A Theory of Collaborative Music Education between Higher Education and Urban Public Schools.”

-Deal, John J. “Development and Delivery of a First-Year Experience Course in Music.”


Hickey, Maud, J. Peter Burkholder, William Pelto, Sally Reid, and Robert Weirich. 2000. “Innovative Ideas for Changing the Undergraduate Music Curriculum.” Panel discussion sponsored by the College Music Society at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Horner, Bruce. 2000. “Toward the Labor of Listening: Toward a Pedagogy of Music as Social.” Paper presentation sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Popular Music at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Lam, Joseph S. C. 2000. “Chinese Music, American College Students, and Ethnomusicology Professors.” Paper presentation sponsored by the Society for Ethnomusicology at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

McLucas, Anne, James Grier, Jeffery Kite-Powell, Gerald Hoekstra, and Cecil Adkins. 2000. “Early Music in U.S. and Canadian Higher Education.” Panel session jointly sponsored at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Sarkissian, Margaret, Kate van Orden, John Wallace, and Ross Duffin. 2000. “Teaching Early Music in the Curriculum.” Panel session jointly sponsored at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000. 

(summary forthcoming)

Seaton, Gayle (chair). 2000. “Canonical Considerations for the American Musical Theater and its Inclusion in College and University Curricula.” Panel session jointly sponsored by the College Music Society and the Society for American Music at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Included the following papers:

-Laird, Paul. “‘If You Asked Me I Could Write A Book’: An Approach to an American Musical Theater Canon.”

-Riis, Thomas. “‘You’ve Got to Be Carefully Taught’: Canonical Concerns.”

-Everett, William. “‘They Say It’s Wonderful’: The American Musical Theater in Courses for Undergraduate and Graduate Music Majors.”

-Sears, Ann. “‘Say it with Music’: The American Musical Theatre in General Studies Courses.”


Théberge, Paul. 2000. “The Project Ahead: Some Thoughts on Developing a Popular Music Curriculum.” Canadian University Music Review 21 (1): 28-39.

The study of popular music in universities is continuously expanding, yet most Canadian universities only teach popular music in the form of stand-alone courses. Théberge argues that a comprehensive and integrated model for popular music programs is needed. Such a model would be interdisciplinary and involve all areas of music study including musicology, ethnomusicology, theory, performance, and composition. Finally, the author addresses the challenges and requirements of implementing such programs.

Turek, Ralph, Max Lifchitz, Paul Konye, and Brenda Romero. 2000. “Diversity in Today’s College Music Curriculum.” Panel discussion sponsored by the College Music Society at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

Westney, William. 2000. “Nourishing the Spark of Communication in Student Performers: An Effective Approach through Unconventional Course Design.” Workshop sponsored by the College Music Society at Toronto 2000: Musical Intersections, Toronto, ON, November 1-5, 2000.

(summary forthcoming)

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Callon, Gordon J. 1999.  “Methodology in Music History for Undergraduate Music Majors at Acadia University: Music 2273.” CAML Newsletter 27: 20-24.

In this article, Callon describes Music 2273, an introductory course to music history and research methodology, which he introduced to the curriculum at Acadia University in 1988. Originally intended for first year students, Music 2273 was changed to a second-year course in 1995. The purpose of the course is to teach students research skills at the beginning of their post-secondary studies in music which they can then develop and make use of throughout the rest of their academic careers. Owing to limited resources and exemplars for developing such courses, the author provides a detailed description of Music 2273, including a summary of the content, resources, and learning activities used in the course.

McCarthy, Marta. 1999. “Choral Conducting Curricula in Ontario Universities.” Canadian Journal of Research in Music Education 40 (4): 21-25.

In this article, McCarthy presents the results of her study on the scope of undergraduate conducting courses in Ontario universities offered in the 1998/99 academic year. Data were collected from course outlines, classroom observations, and instructor and student questionnaires. The study aimed to identify (1) rationales of conducting courses, (2) emphasized skills, (3) classroom procedures and assignments, (4) prioritization of course work, and (5) opportunities for practicing conducting inside and outside the university. The findings of the study include: (1) course rationales are a source of struggle for many instructors to create due to student diversity; the size and scope of music programs is an important factor in determining course rationales; (2) the most frequently emphasized skills are conducting technique, score preparation and aural discrimination; (3) the most frequently used teaching procedures are modeling by the instructor, student/lab workshop, and videotaping students’ conducting; (4) student participation, collaboration, a positive learning environment, and process-based learning are highly valued; and (5) the conducting classroom is the primary place in which students practice their conducting skills. 

Wollenzien, Timothy John. 1999. “An Analysis of Undergraduate Music Education Curriculum Content in Colleges and Universities of the North Central United States.” PhD diss., University of Minnesota.

This study analysed music education curriculum topics in forty-seven NASM accredited colleges and universities of the North Central Division of the Music Educators National Conference. Findings indicate that while curriculum components largely follow NASM guidelines, curriculum topics are very different across schools. The author concludes that music educators must be willing to adapt to change, and remain current in the latest curriculum developments to maintain the relevance of their programs.

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Callon, Gordon J., Patricia Debly, and Paul Rice. 1998. “Searching, Surfing, and Signifying: Methodology and Research in Musicology for Undergraduates.” Roundtable discussion at the 1998 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, May 27-31, 1998.

This roundtable discussion considered undergraduate musicology courses that focus on developing skills in the areas of research, methodology, and historiography. Roundtable participants discussed reasons why students should be educated in these areas; how to balance history, methodology, and historiography content; and methods of instruction, including assessment tools, and online learning resources. The roundtable was divided into two parts. Part 1 focussed on first- and second-year introductory courses, discussing the second-year music history course at Acadia University as an example. Part 2 focussed on courses of the upper-undergraduate level, with discussion of specific courses at Brock University, Memorial University, and the University of Manitoba.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

Frederickson, Karen, Duane Bates, and Roberta Lamb. 1998. “Orchestrating the Sound of Music: Analysis and Design of a University Music Education Curriculum.” The Canadian Music Educator 39 (3): 15-22.

This article is a report on the Music Education Needs Assessment General Survey. The survey was conducted by the authors as part of a larger research project operating out of Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, to examine and revise music education curriculum. As part of the project, the researchers designed the survey to determine the qualities of music education and music teachers that stakeholders most value. Over 1000 surveys were distributed to schools throughout the province of Ontario and 247 were returned to the researchers. Although there were differences in responses between gender, age, and educational role, the majority of respondents agreed that interpersonal skills and classroom management skills were the most important skills for music educators. There was far less agreement on the specific music skills that are most important for educators, potentially revealing that there is little consensus on content and objectives in music education.

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Clark, Caryl, and Suzanne Meyers. 1997. “Faculty-Librarian Cooperation in Bibliographic Instruction.” Paper presented at the 1997 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, June 11-14, 1997.

This paper explored the challenges of developing assignments that incorporate music history and library skills, with the aim of encouraging greater collaboration between professors and librarians. The authors discussed sample assignments, various pedagogical strategies, and the advantages of cooperative teaching.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

Ethier, Glen. 1997. “Desegregating the Halves: Integrating Compositions by Women into Core Undergraduate Theory and Analysis Courses.” Paper presented at the 1997 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, NL, June 11-14, 1997.

Although the body of feminist scholarship is growing, music by women is still marginalized in the curriculum of undergraduate music theory courses. Drawing on various examples, the author discusses the value of analysing works by “lesser” women composers and suggests an anthology structure that includes music by men and women.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

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Cyr, Mary, Patricia Debly, Glen Carruthers, and Paul F. Rice. 1996. “Teaching Music History and Music Appreciation: Aims, Issues and Resource Materials.” Roundtable discussion at the 1996 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, May 30-June 2, 1996. 

Panel members discussed the challenges of using new technology and other resources to teach music, with consideration given to cost and large class sizes. Mary Cyr discussed the adaptation of resources for distance education courses. Patricia Debly discussed multimedia in the classroom, specifically relating to projection technologies. Glen Carruthers considered the effectiveness of resources that integrate a text, anthology and recordings. Finally, Paul Rice examined different video programmes for teaching music and art history.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

Shand, Patricia, and James Kippen. 1996. “Perspectives on Education in World Music.” Paper presented at the 1996 Canadian University Music Society Annual Conference, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, May 30-June 2, 1996.

In this paper, Shand and Kippen discussed the development of world music education curriculum at the University of Toronto Faculty of Music and suggested possibilities for future work in this area. The paper began by reviewing curriculum development in world music over the past ten years at the University, which included the establishment of ensembles and a variety of courses including a multicultural music education course, the Music as Culture compulsory first-year music history core course, and the Education in World Music series which combined world music ensembles and the multicultural music education course. The paper discussed four specific courses in this series: West African Drumming and Dancing, Middle Eastern and Persian Music, Japanese Shakuhachi Ensemble, and Balinese Gamelan. Based on information collected from student projects, interviews, and written feedback, the researchers learned about the objectives of instructors, student perceptions of world music before and after taking courses, student experience, and educational results.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

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Diamond, Beverley. 1995. “Narratives in Canadian Music.” In Taking a Stand: Essays in Honour of John Beckwith, edited by Timothy McGee, 273-305. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 

In this essay, Diamond states that her aim is “to deconstruct the values and assumptions of the ‘narrative’” of Canadian music history created during the post-1960 period (274). She begins by analysing three important monographs on Canadian music history that are often used as textbooks: Helmut Kallmann’s A History of Music in Canada, 1534-1914 (1960), Clifford Ford’s Canada’s Music: An Historical Survey (1982), and Timothy McGee’s The Music of Canada(1985). Her analysis includes examination of each monograph’s stated intent or goal; the amount of textual space and detail provided to different musics, forms of musical activity, eras, places, individuals, and social groups; the means of structuring and organizing each book; and qualities of the language used in musical description. Many of these aspects speak to fundamental socio-political values about music and musical culture that guided the writing of these texts. According to Diamond, these narratives of Canadian music tend to privilege “sophisticated” composition in urban and institutional settings. The final section of her analysis compares narratives of Canadian music with those of American music. She closes by calling on the reader to reflect on structures of power in narratives of music history as a way of encouraging scholars to rethink and rewrite narratives in Canadian music in the future. 

Dineen, Murray, William Renwick, Carmen Sabourin, and Anna Ferenc. 1995. “Theory Colloquium I: On the Canon: Established Theory, Its Provenance, Influence, and Future.” Panel discussion at the 1995 Joint Meeting of the Canadian University Music Society, Canadian Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres, and the Association pour l’avancement de la recherche en musique du Québec (ARMuQ). McGill University, Montréal, QC, June 1-4, 1995.

The panel discussion addressed the relationship between musical canons, methods, and philosophies in the study of music theory. Renwick considered changes to the undergraduate theory curriculum to expand its purview beyond the study of Lutheran chorales. Sabourin discussed Schenkerian analysis in relation to the canon and as an exclusionary method of musical analysis. Finally, Anna Ferenc discussed the Russian modernist composer Nikolai Roslavets and his music’s challenge to past and contemporary musical canons.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

Dust, Thomas James. 1995. “Curricular Structure and the Music and Music Education Components of Secondary Music Education Programs at Canadian Institutions of Higher Education.” DME diss., Indiana University.

This study investigates various features of music teacher education programs in Canada, comparing them to guidelines set out by NASM. The features analysed include degree-type, curriculum, certification requirements, admission criteria, major and minor subject requirements, class sizes, and number of faculty. The study found that while Canadian programs do meet the expectations of some NASM recommendations, they fall short of many others. The author suggests that a set of guidelines, similar to those of NASM, should be developed for Canadian programs. 

Peters, Diane. 1995. “Canadian Music and Music Education: An Annotated Bibliography.” Paper presented at the 1995 Joint Meeting of the Canadian University Music Society, Canadian Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres, and the Association pour l’avancement de la recherche en musique du Québec (ARMuQ), McGill University, Montréal, QC, June 1-4, 1995. 

(further information currently unavailable)

Spring, Howard, Robert Witmer, Nancy Marrelli, Andrew Homzy, Reno de Stefano, and André White. 1995. “Jazz Studies in Canada.” Panel discussion at the 1995 Joint Meeting of the Canadian University Music Society, Canadian Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres, and the Association pour l’avancement de la recherche en musique du Québec (ARMuQ), McGill University, Montréal, QC, June 1-4, 1995. 

This discussion of jazz studies in Canada addressed research, archival, and pedagogical topics. Witmer discussed the jazz archives at York University and suggested how they may be made more widely accessible. Marrelli described a ten-year project of creating an archive of Montréal jazz history. Homzy discussed the scholarship on jazz musicians Charles Mingus, Duke Ellington, Francy Boland, and Charlie Barnet, and considered their inclusion in university curriculum. De Stefano reported on his research on jazz guitarist Wes Montgomery and discussed the challenges of studying jazz improvisation. Finally, André White discussed uses of the internet for jazz research.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

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Dineen, Murray. 1994. “Whither our Undergraduate Core Curriculum in Theory?*” Canadian University Music Review14: 146-159.

This article is based on the roundtable discussion “The Undergraduate Core Curriculum in Theory: What Can Be Taught? What Should Be Taught?” which took place at the 1992 meeting of the Canadian University Music Society in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. According to Dineen, the current core curriculum combines “poiesis” (the act of creating/composing) with “apologetics” (the act of analysis). Drawing an example from Aldwell and Schachter’s Harmony and Voice Leading, Dineen criticizes theory pedagogy that simultaneously tasks students with following rules for harmonization and considering how these rules were crafted by means of analysis. Rather, he proposes that these two goals, “poiesis” and “apologetics” should be treated as separate skills in the core curriculum. Furthermore, Dineen suggests that more emphasis should be placed on developing skills to understand and engage with music and musical discourses than familiarity with the canonical repertoire. In the final section of the article Dineen comments on the power of textbook publishers to influence curriculum in the absence of organized methods for curriculum development by theorists.

Rushton, David William. 1994. “The Music Program at Trinity Western University: Curriculum Perspectives, Past, Present, and Future.” EdD diss., University of British Columbia. 

The purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the music program at Trinity Western University according to the standards of the National Association of Schools of Music and to identify qualities of excellent music programs for the present and future. The ideology behind the study drew on the comprehensive musicianship movement and the College Music Society’s recommendation for comprehensive musical perspectives to guide curriculum. Data was collected through questionnaires given to students, graduates, faculty, administrators, and members of the board of governors. Based on the study, the author provides six recommendations aimed at diversifying and expanding curriculum options at Trinity Western University, and five recommendations for future research.

Shand, Patricia. 1994. “The North York Choral Development Project: An Innovative Approach to Music Teacher Education.” Paper presented at the 1994 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, June 3-6, 1994.

In this paper, Shand discussed her analysis of the North York Choral Development Project considering the following aspects: music and performance, contextualized learning, opportunities for long-term in-service education, the relationship between the school board and university, integration of theory and practice, and the involvement of different individuals and their roles including pre-service and in-service music teachers, researchers, practitioners, and professional musicians. 

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

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Backus, Joan, Ted Dawson, John Glofcheskie, Gordon E. Smith (chair), Elaine Keillor, and Nancy Vogan. 1993. “Critical and Historical Approaches to Teaching Canadian Music.” Roundtable discussion at the 1993 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, May 29-June 1.

The roundtable included the following presentations: 

-        Joan Backus. “An Interdisciplinary Context for the Study of Canadian Music.” 

-        Ted Dawson. “Resources for Designing Canadian Studies Courses.”

-        John Glofcheskie. “Incorporation of Canadian Music into an Introductory Music History Course.” 

-        Elaine Keillor. “Upper-level Undergraduate Courses in the History of Canadian Music, with Special Emphasis on Folk and Native Music.” 

-        Nancy Vogan. “Use of Technology in Teaching Canadian Music.”

(further information currently unavailable)

Code, Jim, Richard Parks, and Sr. Claudette Melanson. 1993. “The Preparedness of Students for the Theory Components of B. Mus. Programs.” Roundtable discussion at the 1993 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, May 29-June 1, 1993.

This roundtable discussed concerns regarding student ability in music theory prior to entering Bachelor of Music programs. Richard Parks discussed the correspondence course that is taken by students before they begin their first year at the University of Western Ontario. Sr. Claudette Melanson discussed student preparedness in Atlantic Canada and the “preparatory year” approach at l’Université de Moncton.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

Crutcher, Ronald A. 1993. “Transforming the Music Curriculum.” Proceedings of the 68th Annual Meeting: National Association of Schools of Music 81: 6-12.

Despite advances in research on African American music, the author’s examination of institutions of higher learning reveals that there is a significant lack of diversity with respect to curricula, programming, social interactions, policies, procedures, management style and structures. Although music programs welcome a diversity of students, the curriculum remains largely Euro-centric, marginalizing the musical traditions of people of colour. The author offers three recommendations for the integration of diversity into music programs: (1) examine alternatives to the typical European art music survey, (2) perform acts of volunteer service in diverse communities, and (3) focus on developing musicians as communicators who can reach broad audiences.

Hobbs, Wayne. 1993. “Pattern and Sequence in the Undergraduate Music Curriculum.” Proceedings of the 68th Annual Meeting: National Association of Schools of Music 81:113-123.

In this article, Hobbs critiques the course structure of the Bachelor of Music in Performance degree at American institutions which combines a three-year European conservatory style performance degree with the American four-year liberal arts degree. Although liberal arts curricula traditionally move from general to more specific content with increasing complexity, this logical structure is distorted in the undergraduate music curricula. While the first and second years of the degree are devoted to courses in music specialization, students often take their more general liberal arts credits in English, math, science, etc., in their third and fourth years, resulting in a degree that moves from greater specialization to more general courses. In the appendices, Hobbs provides an alternative structuring of a four-year degree in which students take their general liberal arts courses in the early years of the degree, and progressively gain greater specialization in music which each passing year.

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Morrison, Charles. 1992. “The Undergraduate Core Curriculum in Theory: What Can Be Taught? What Should Be Taught?” Roundtable discussion at the 1992 Canadian University Music Society Annual Conference in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI, 1992.

See Dineen, Murray. 1994. “Whither our Undergraduate Core Curriculum in Theory?*” for a summary of Dineen’s contribution to the roundtable (further information currently unavailable).

Shand, Patricia. 1992. “Canadian Music in the School Curriculum: Illusion or Reality.” Paper presented at the 1992 Canadian University Music Society Annual Conference in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI, 1992. 

(further information currently unavailable)

Simosko, Vladimir. 1992. “Ethnomusicology and Education in the 1990s.” Canadian Folk Music 26 (3): 3-6. http://cfmb.icaap.org/content/26.3/.

In this article Simosko explains that despite the significant value of “authentic ethnic music,” access to studying this music is severely limited in university settings, largely owing to lack of interest. Thus, Simosko argues that a change in cultural values in North America would be necessary to make the widespread availability of this music a worthwhile pursuit. The author proposes that education in ethnomusicology can facilitate such a shift in cultural values, yet significant ethnomusicological course offerings are rare in North America, and program structures typically leave little opportunity for students to pursue musical interests beyond their required courses.

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Hope, Simon. 1991. “The Changing Role of Music and Music Education in the 1990’s.” Lecture presented at the 1991 Canadian University Music Society Annual Conference in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, May 27-30, 1991.

The conference program indicates that Simon Hope is from the North American Schools of Music, but a penciled-in correction indicates that Simon Hope is from the National Association of Schools of Music (further information currently unavailable).

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Beaudry, Nicole, Beverley Diamond Cavanagh, Virginia Garrison, Regula Burckhardt Qureshi, George Sawa, and Robert Witmer. 1990. “Roundtable Discussion: Ethnomusicology in the Canadian University.” In Ethnomusicology in Canada: Proceedings of the First Conference on Ethnomusicology in Canada, edited by Robert Witmer, 349-370. Toronto: Institute for Canadian Music. 

Participants in this roundtable discussion began by sharing data they collected on ethnomusicology programs and course offerings at graduate and undergraduate levels in Canada, divided into four categories: Eastern Canada, Quebec, Ontario, and Western Canada. Summary tables of ethnomusicology courses in Ontario organized by university, field, and topic are provided. Following this initial sharing of information, participants discussed major issues of concern including: the treatment of ethnomusicology as an “exotic fringe” in Canadian universities, concerns of disciplinary placement, guidelines for “core” programs in ethnomusicology, funding and resources, engagement with broader communities outside the academy, the potential for drawing on U.S. models for the creation of Canadian programs, Canadian content/topics in Canadian ethnomusicology programs, the relationship between Francophone and Anglophone ethnomusicologists, interdisciplinary and interinstitutional cooperation, and the creation of specifically PhD ethnomusicology programs in Canada. The discussion concluded with questions and comments from the audience.

Diamond, Beverley. 1990. “Canadian Music Studies in University Curricula.” ACS Newsletter 12 (3):16-18.

In this article, Diamond describes a study she conducted of the Canadian music studies content of 41 Canadian university music programs. She found that 24 programs offered separate courses in Canadian music. Courses that focussed on a particular location within Canada were rare: only the University of British Columbia and York University offered these types of courses, focussing on music in Vancouver and Toronto, respectively. Jazz appeared to be one of the most prominent subject areas featuring North American music. 

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Cavanagh, Beverley. 1989. “Narratives in Canadian Music.” Paper presented at the 1989 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 29-June 1, 1989.  

In this paper, the author examined various English-language texts on Canadian music history (post-1950) to identify underlying narratives, question their relevance, and suggest alternative narratives for Canadian music history. The author examined five monographs (Kallmann 1960; Amtmann 1975; Proctor 1980; Ford 1982; and McGee 1985) and two essay compilations (MacMillan 1955; and Walter 1969), considering the intentions of the authors, the priorities and points of emphasis in each text, and the inclusion/exclusion of certain groups and musical traditions.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

College Music Society. 1989. Music in the Undergraduate Curriculum, a Reassessment: Report of the Study Group on the Content of the Undergraduate Music Curriculum. Boulder, CO: College Music Society.

This report details a study of undergraduate music curricula in colleges and universities in the United States, initiated in the fall of 1986 by the College Music Society (CMS). The group of researchers involved in the study were tasked with initiating serious discussion about the curriculum, reassessing the content and value of the curriculum in the context of multiculturalism, considering the preparation of music students to be life-long learners and contributing members of a diverse society, examining assumptions made about music studies, and finally exploring changes to the curriculum that will respond to the previously listed factors. Drawing on contemporary reports on undergraduate education, and commentary from individuals in the musical community, the study group compiled this report which addresses the impact of cultural diversity, cultural identity, and the changing social roles of music on undergraduate music curriculum. 

ennerstrom, Mary H. 1989. “The Undergraduate Core Music Curriculum at the Indiana University.” Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy 3 (2): 153-176. https://jmtp.appstate.edu/ jmtp-volume-3.

This study reviews the core music curriculum at the Indiana University School of Music from 1950 to 1989. In 1950, the curriculum was designed to teach students a basic core of knowledge (major composers and composition) and skills (theory, analysis). The core also including training in aural skills, sight-reading, and keyboard proficiency. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, the faculty developed the curriculum to broaden the scope of music theory from harmony and Bach chorales to include examples and elements of music from across history, including twentieth-century music. Furthermore, courses were modified to focus less on chronology and style, and more on the integration of melody, counterpoint, and harmony.  The curriculum was changed again the in 1970s in accordance with a series of goals that were set out to guide curriculum development. The goals emphasized the importance of the cultural context of music, critical thinking, historical knowledge, analysis, composition, aural skills, keyboard realization, and sight-reading. The last section of the report discusses the current core curriculum including its effectiveness and ongoing challenges.

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Cadrin, Paul. 1988. “L’Enseignement du langage tonal à l’Université Laval : bilan de neuf années d’innovation.” Les Cahiers de l’ARMuQ 10: 49-57.

In this article, Paul Cadrin describes the tonal language course required of all undergraduate students at the School of Music at l’Université Laval, based on Schenkerian thought. Cadrin notes that the course does not follow a “historicizing” model nor the notion of evolutionary “progress” in history. However, the course is still anchored within a historical framework, built around the perspective that musical languages transform over time and that the period between 1500 and 1900 was a time of relative stability. Topics include linear writing, four-part harmony, and harmonic function, drawing examples from all across the tonal era.

Cramer, Eugene, Damjana Bratuž, Isabelle Mills, Eric Cameron, and Douglas Buck. 1988. “Current Issues in Canadian University Teaching in Music and the Related Arts.” Panel discussion with the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education at the 1988 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, June 1-3, 1988.

(further information currently unavailable)

Forand, Maryse. 1988. “Profils d’apprentissage musical individualisé: un compte rendu de recherche.” Les Cahiers de l’ARMuQ 10: 41-48.  

This article presents the objectives and conclusions of a three-year research project on individualized music learning profiles, conducted by Gilles Simard, and funded by FCAR and SSHRC. In particular, the study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of computer-assisted learning and identifying students who most benefit from computer-assisted learning in the context of aural skills training. The specific aural skills tested in the study include identification of intervals, chords and degrees of range. Overall, the results indicated that computer-assisted teaching is an effective pedagogical method, and in some instances may be more effective than traditional group instruction. In terms of student profiles, computer-assisted learning was very effective for a variety of different learners, including high-achieving students, older individuals, individuals who do not respond well to traditional teaching methods, and those interested in exploratory learning.

Ringuette, Raymond. 1988. “La recherche en éducation musicale au Québec: bilan de la situation et perspectives d’avenir.” Paper presented at the 1988 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, June 1-3, 1988.

(further information currently unavailable)

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Gillmor, Alan, John Rea, Alfred Fisher, and Gordana Lazarevich. 1987. “Contemporary Canadian Music in the Universities in the Year 2000.” Canadian League of Composers panel discussion at the 1987 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Canadian League of Composers, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, May 24-25, 1987.

The panel discussed the inclusion of Canadian music repertories in the curriculum of undergraduate music programs in Canadian universities. The session was guided by the following questions: “What amount of Canadian music is a reasonable minimum? What training can be sacrificed to make more room for Canadian content? How can music be incorporated in non-curricular activities? How should concert music be balanced with ethnic, jazz, pop and other contemporary Canadian musics?”

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

Klocko, David G. 1987. “Undergraduate Music Curriculum.” Sonneck Society Bulletin 13 (1): 12-13.

In this article, Klocko critiques the NASM guidelines that allow individual university music programs to determine an appropriate balance between Western concert music, contemporary ‘pop’ music, music of non-Western cultures, folk music of Europe and America, and Western art music since 1950. Klocko claims that under this policy, most instructors who are trained only in Western classical music continue to teach only Western classical music. In order to achieve a more balanced curriculum, Klocko suggests that changes to the undergraduate curriculum for music teachers at elementary/secondary and college levels are necessary, so that teachers are trained in traditions beyond Western art music. He provides rationale for the change, and some preliminary suggestions for implementing the curricular changes.

Lazarevich, Gordana, Albert La France, Cynthia Floyd, Paul Cadrin, Peter Hatch, Beverley Cavanagh, and Alfred Fisher. 1987. “Music in the Canadian University in the Year 2000.” Panel at the 1987 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Canadian League of Composers, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, May 24-25, 1987.

(further information currently unavailable)

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Simard, Gilles. 1985. “Profils d’apprentissage musical individualisé.” Paper presented at the 1985 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, 1985.

In this paper, Simard presented research on the use of computers in music education, with a particular focus on auditory training. Involving more than 250 students from Université Laval and Cégep de Sainte-Foy, the efficacy of computer-assisted instruction, traditional group instruction, and a combined approach to instruction were analyzed in relation to different learning styles.

(summary based on abstract provided in conference program)

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Lessem, Alan. 1984. “The Refugee Composer: A Topic for Twentieth-Century Music History.” Paper presented at the 1984 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, June 2-4, 1984.

(further information currently unavailable)

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Umberson, George. 1980. “Education and Training of Practitioners in Opera/Music Theater.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting 68: 117-120.

In this essay, Umberson reflects on future directions for university programs in the areas of opera and music theatre. He predicts that there will be an increase of opera/music theatre programs in terms of number, size, and scope. Regarding training and curriculum, Umberson predicts that future opera/musical theatre singers will require serious training in acting as well as singing, and they will need to broaden their expertise of different styles and new or lesser known repertoire. The essential components of the training of the singer/actor will be vocal technique, musicianship (piano), acting (including dance and theatre training), singing-acting, and performance.

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Werner, Robert J. 1979. “The Place of Music in Interdisciplinary Studies.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting 67: 83-90.

In this paper, Werner defines an interdisciplinary approach to music education, provides case study examples from different institutions, and discusses the responsibilities of faculty who engage in interdisciplinary education. The author argues that the most successful programs will include a core curriculum that ensures basic competence in a single discipline. In terms of faculty responsibility, Werner notes that interdisciplinary teaching requires a significant amount of time spent on planning, coordination, learning about disciplines outside one’s own specialty, and developing interrelationships with teachers in other disciplines. Werner concludes by suggesting some areas of music study that may be most compatible with an interdisciplinary approach, particularly music history, ethnomusicology, and music theory. Music history or ethnomusicology foci could be enhanced through courses in social history, dance, technology, philosophy, literature, art, architecture, and drama. Music theory could be paired with courses in aesthetics, physics, philosophy, and mathematics.

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Boylan, Paul, Robert House, and Fred C. Mayer. 1978. “Revitalizing the Summer Session.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 118-127. 

This panel session included individual papers by each of the three authors on the topic of revitalizing summer music programming. Citations for the individual contributions are listed below. After describing the declining enrollment of summer programs in schools of music, Paul Boylan identifies four areas that could benefit from revitalization: promotional efforts, the attraction of more students, financing, and program development. In terms of program development, Boylan encourages faculty members to devise new attractive course offering that will spark student interest. Robert House offers thirteen strategies for increasing enrollment in summer sessions. Suggestions are focussed on the scheduling and rotation of courses, maintaining scholarship funds and graduate assistantships, offering unique courses and workshops, maintaining large ensembles and performing groups, and hiring guest clinicians and faculty with strong teaching records. After describing the negative consequences of poor summer enrollment and identifying the types of students who typically participate in summer courses, Fred C. Mayer proposes a few suggestions to revitalize the summer programs. These suggestions include inviting specialist or guest professors to teach summer courses, increasing financial support for students in the summer, determining summer courses based on student interest and need rather than faculty availability, encouraging state departments to support summer education, and finally, encouraging non-music students to take electives in music in the summer term.

Boylan, Paul. 1978. “Revitalizing the Summer Session.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 118-122.

House, Robert. 1978. “Revitalizing Summer Programs.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 123-124.

Mayer, Fred C. 1978. “Revitalizing the Summer Session.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 125-127.


Clarke, Garry E. 1978. “The Introduction to Music Course: Some Observations and Suggestions.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 75-82.

In this paper, Clarke considers strategies for revitalizing music appreciation courses. Based on years of teaching the introduction to music course at Washington College in Maryland, Clarke shares a few key observations: first, non-music majors have significant potential to grasp musical knowledge and skills, and are capable of meaningfully engaging with music; second, many musicians and instructors have an attitude of disdain toward music appreciation courses; and third, music appreciation textbooks focus on the music of the “masters,” providing students with a very limited conception of musical culture. Noting that “the most important works are not always the best teaching devices” (79), Clarke describes his use of vernacular music and works of his own composition to teach different musical concepts. He also suggests that the music appreciation course could be enriched by exposing students to live performances, discussing the rich cultural context of music, considering fascinating musical phenomena such as synaesthesia, and introducing students to the study of aesthetics.

Hutchinson, Lucie. 1978. “Marylhurst Education Center.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 77-79.  

This article discusses the development of new music programming after the closing of Marylhurst College and subsequent opening of Marylhurst Education Center in 1974 in Oregon. The new programs were created to support older students through personalized education plans. Students can fulfil degree requirements through both traditional and alternative learning approaches including internal and external institutional coursework, experiential learning, and independent or directed studies. Finally, program directors/instructors strive to respond directly to student needs and requests, as evidenced by the establishment of a Jazz Studies program.

Johnson, Sarah, Steven Lee, and Vincent Cichowicz. 1978. “Applied Instruction for Majors: Can We Be More Efficient?” Panel session in the National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 77-91.

This panel session included individual papers by each of the authors on the topic of the efficiency of applied instruction. Citations for the individual contributions are listed below. Johnson discusses the curricular approach to freshman vocal instruction at Wright State University (WSU), which includes 30-minute private lessons for performance majors (15-minute private lessons for music education majors), classes in repertoire and pronunciation of foreign languages, and a small group class where students work on technical skills, perform solo works, and discuss readings. Based on five years of implementing this group approach, the author and her colleagues have seen positive results in the areas of basic singing technique, vocal production, musicianship and interpretation, and self-confidence. Steven Lee describes his own experiences teaching group piano, in which he combines aspects of master classes and piano lab classes. The pedagogical advantages of group instruction include decreased performance anxiety, peer instruction/learning, and exposure to a greater amount of repertoire. He finishes his article with a few comments on practical considerations such as scheduling and reactions from other faculty. Cichowicz describes the benefits, organization, and curriculum of an approach to applied instruction that combines individual and group lessons for orchestral musicians. In order to accommodate group lessons, individuals meet with their private teacher every 10-12 days instead of every week. The group classes have several advantages: they allow students to learn about topics that do not typically arise in private lessons, they serve as a forum for performance-oriented lectures, and they expose students to a larger amount of repertoire than they might encounter in their individual lessons. Following the individual responses, the three authors participated in a question and answer forum. Questions focused on the practicalities of implementing alternative teaching methods and curricular structures, addressing student reactions, program structures, scheduling realities, methods of grouping students, number of students, and program time frame. 

Johnson, Sarah. 1978. “Group Instruction – An Alternative for the Freshman Voice Student.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 77-79.  

Lee, Steven. 1978. “Applied Instruction For Majors: Can We Be More Efficient?” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 80-84.

Cichowicz, Vincent. 1978. “Applied Instruction for Majors: How Can We Be More Efficient?” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting 66: 85-87.


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Carpenter, Thomas. 1977. “Music Education and the Future.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting 65: 183-186.

In this article, Carpenter predicts possible future developments in university and college music curricula regarding increased use of media-related technology, new scientific discoveries about music and the brain, the increasing popularity of competency-based teacher certification programs, and the restructuring of degree programs to accommodate diverse career options in the music industry. Concerning technology, Carpenter predicts that skill-based courses such as ear training and theory will be taught with the aid of computer programs; music history lessons will be taught with recorded audio and video files; and students may use computer-generated instrumental sounds for orchestration assignments. In terms of the brain, knowledge of how the brain functions will likely assist teachers in differentiating their instruction to appeal to different forms of cognition and learning. As competency-based teacher certification programs are being introduced all over the country, Carpenter notes that these types of programs, based on identifiable competencies, will become common in other types of music degree programs. Finally, as available career paths in music diversify, Carpenter predicts that schools may move to a degree-structure that contains a core curriculum for all music students, and a variety of electives to allow students to design their own degrees around particular specialities.

D’Arms, Edward F. 1977. Preface to “Workshop on Music in General Education.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting 65: 122-123.

This roundtable discussion, introduced by Edward F. D’Arms, marked the beginning of a two-year project by NASM to discuss and initiate action in the area of music in general education. Charles Schwartz outlines the development of music education in the U.S. from the 17th century to the present and argues that music education should return to its earlier focus on public participation and education, instead of the European tradition which focusses on creating professional musicians. Jeanne Schaffer describes the benefits of creative arts courses that challenge students to develop their creativity, curiosity, subjectivity, and critical thinking skills. Eugene T. Simpson discusses the declining interest in classical music and increasing interest in popular music in America. He argues that the lack of job opportunities for performers and teachers, and the lack of audience for classical performances, are dictated by the level of musical taste in America, which in turn, is dictated by the media. Thus, he proposes that “top forty” programming should be replaced with classical music and music programs based on the theories of Suzuki and Kodaly should be implemented in schools. Finally, Arno Drucker discusses various opportunities for community colleges to facilitate music-making on campus and in the wider community.

Includes the following papers:

Schwartz, Charles. 1977. “Development of Music Education in the United States.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting 65: 124-128.

Shaffer, Jeanne. 1977. “A Humanities Course in Creative Arts.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting 65: 129-132.

Simpson, Eugene T. 1977. “The Missing Ingredient – A Sense of Reality about the Music Profession.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting 65: 133-139.

Drucker, Arno. 1977. “Music in General Education at the Community College.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting 65: 140-142.


Davey, Earl. 1977. “The Development of Undergraduate Music Curricula at the University of Toronto, 1918-68.” PhD diss., University of Toronto.

(summary forthcoming)

Ellard, Brian J. 1977. “Music in Higher Education in Canada.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting 65: 53-61.

In this paper, Ellard introduces the nature and function of the Canadian Association of University Schools of Music to members of NASM and outlined a history of the music programs offered at Canadian institutions of higher learning from 1840 to 1976. According to Ellard, since 1940 Canadian institutions have modelled their programs after those in the United States, resulting in a greater variety of fields of study and a greater integration of applied music studies. Based on the inventory of undergraduate programs in music that the author compiled during the 1975-76 school year, there are currently 29 programs at Canadian universities offering bachelor degrees in music. Ellard reviews data concerning faculty members, student enrollment, entrance requirements, and program content and structure.

Troth, Eugene. 1977. “Music Education in the Future.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 52ndAnnual Meeting 65: 193-196.

In light of the oversupply of college graduates and the difficult job market following graduation, Troth discusses strategies for reducing the number of graduates in music education programs. He encourages music schools to find ways to identify students who are committed to teaching music and display significant potential for success in music education. At his own institution, various methods for screening students to identify those who may be more suited to alternate career paths have been implemented. For example, students are required to take an orientation course that broadly outlines the profession of music education, the necessary training for the profession, and other possible career paths. Troth has found that many students after taking this course decide for themselves that music education is not right for them. He suggests that during the early stages of degree programs, music schools must provide students with the opportunity to explore alternative careers such as business, therapy, or recording.

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Anhalt, István. 1976. “Where is the Teaching of Composition in Canadian Universities Going?” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

Bellingham, Bruce. 1976. “Canadian Higher Education in Music.” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

Blume, Helmut. 1976. “The Training of Professional Instrumentalists in Canada.” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

Carlson, William R. 1976. “Guitar for the Classroom Teacher and Non-Music Major.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting 64: 99-102.

In this article, Carlson describes the increasing use of guitars in classroom music instruction at all levels. Carlson argues that as guitar instruction becomes more important in public schools, post-secondary schools have a responsibility to train music students in guitar. Guitar may be incorporated into the curriculum by including guitar instruction in music fundamentals courses and offering summer workshops in guitar. The author concludes by describing his own experiences teaching summer guitar workshops at Indiana University and DeLourdes College.

Ellard, Brian. 1976. “Inventaire comparatif des exigences en heures contact des programmes de formation musicale offerts dans les universités canadiennes.” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

Keane, David. 1976. “A Historical-Compositional Approach to First Year Music Theory.” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

Manny, Gilles. 1976. “The Problem of Contemporary Music in the Training of Instrumentalists.” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

Mather, Christine K. 1976. “The Nature or Role of the Teaching of History in the Training of the Contemporary Musician.” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

Mayer, Fred C. 1976. “Performance Major or Music Education Major: Caught in the Middle.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting 64: 88-94.

In this paper, Mayer explores curricular modifications to expand the choices of specialization available to Bachelor of Music students. Schools of music frequently divide their students between two specializations: performance and music education. Performance streams often require a high level of performance ability, while the performance requirements for music education are far less demanding. Thus, Mayer suggests that curricular alternatives are needed for students who do not wish to pursue music education and have not achieved a level of performance ability adequate for the performance stream. Mayer proposes a Bachelor of Music degree structure that includes a specialized education block which may include courses such as journalism, business/management, music librarianship, television/radio, church music, theater, music therapy, pedagogy, and accompanying.

McMillan, Barclay. 1976. “Contemporary Requirements in the Training of a Musicologist.” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

Pederson, P. 1976. “The Place of Modern Canadian Music in the Program of Canadian Universities.” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

Perron, Pierre. 1976. “Ear-Training at the University Level.” Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28, 1976.

(further information currently unavailable)

“The University and Pre- or Extra University Instrumental Studies.” 1976. Paper presented at the 1976 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, May 25-28.

(further information currently unavailable)

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Bonelli, Eugene. 1975. “Implications of the Revised NASM Standards.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting 63: 137-143.

In this article, Bonelli examines three main implications of the revised NASM standards. First, schools of music must respond to the realities of music in the current age, most importantly the great diversity of compositional practices that coexist such as western art music, jazz, popular music, experimental music, Asian and African musics, and various hybrid combinations. Second, schools must prepare students for promising career opportunities in music as performance opportunities continuously decrease. Finally, schools of music must increase support for music in general education to expand support for the arts.

Crighton, Arthur. 1975. “Form and Analysis for Undergraduates.” Paper presented at the 1975 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, June 5-7, 1975.

(further information currently unavailable)

Lee, William F. 1975. “Curricula for Music/Business Applications.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting 63: 155-156.

This article introduces a panel discussion on curricula for music/business applications, considering decreasing employment opportunities in the areas of performance and teaching. The roundtable includes responses by Larry R. Linkin, Henry Romersa, and Darwin Fredrickson. Larry Linkin discusses the process of training music students for jobs that exist with manufacturers, retailers, and suppliers, through education in business and economics. Henry Romersa provides a detailed account of the commercial music curricula developed by the NARAS (National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences) Institute and implemented in over 24 colleges in the United States. This curriculum covers topics such as music merchandising and business, recording engineering and arranging, legal aspects of the music industry, and song writing. In the second half of his response, he discusses the educational position of the music industry, largely consisting of entrepreneurs with little formal music education. The final contribution by Darwin Fredrickson provides an overview of the state of music curricula in California community colleges and considers in greater detail approaches to the two-year commercial-vocational curricula at six different colleges.

Includes the following papers:

Linkin, Larry R. 1975. “Curricula for Music/Business Applications.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting 63: 157-160.

Romersa, Henry. 1975. “Curricula and Vocational Opportunities in the Recording Industry.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting 63: 161-166.

Fredrickson, Darwin. 1975. “Two-Year Curricula in Music in the California Community Colleges.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting 63: 167-171.


Miller, Samuel. 1975. “Competency Based Teacher Education in Music.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting 63: 129-136.

Miller begins with an overview of the changing ideas in educational theory over the past several decades and then shifts to describe competency-based teacher education which responds to the needs of the contemporary classroom. Competency-based teacher education focuses on hands-on learning with a practical teaching component. These programs are field-centered, with students observing, teaching and interacting with students at all levels. Competency-based teacher education also emphasises individualization and varied modes of instruction that accommodate different learning styles. Student teachers are taught to design lessons that incorporate sound pedagogical methods, specific and measurable goals, clear expectations, and methods of evaluation.

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Hieronymus, Gretchen. 1974. “Competency-Based Programs in Teacher Education.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting 62: 78-84.

In this article, Hieronymus describes the competency-based teacher education movement which has gained increasing momentum, owing in large part to a conference conducted at the University of Houston in 1971. Competency-based teacher education programs seek to increase the responsiveness of schools to societal change. The primary features of these programs include precise and clear learning goals, student accountability, individualization, and learner-centered pedagogy. At its core, the system is aimed at changing the teacher, and thus, it seeks to identify individual actions, abilities, or behaviours that contribute to good teaching. After detailing some specific strategies for implementing these programs and the kinds of pedagogical activities that align with the values of competency-based teacher education, Hieronymus notes that the success of these programs will require great flexibility, interaction, and cooperation within faculties of music.

Mason, James A. 1974. “Humanizing a Competency-Based Curriculum.” National Association of Schools of Music: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting 62: 59-63.

As knowledge, technology, population, mobility, and leisure experience increasing growth, the educational expectations of students, teachers, and parents increase as well. In response to the changing conditions of the world, Mason suggests that NASM-accredited music schools should focus on a single educational position that combines aspects of both behavioural and humanistic approaches, termed humanized competency-based curriculum. A humanized competency-based curriculum focuses on the creation and fulfilment of objectives that are characterised as (1) important, (2) focussed on content and process, (3) individualized, (4) co-created by students and teachers, (5) creatively and meaningfully implemented and (6) measurable by different kinds of evidence.

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Carlisle, Roxane C. 1972. “The Current Ethnomusicology Curriculum in Canadian Universities.” Ethnomusicology 16 (3): 488-498. 

This article reviews ethnomusicology program offerings at Canadian universities in the year 1972. Carlisle provides detailed program and course descriptions organized by university, as well as selected commentary from professors teaching ethnomusicology at these universities. Carlisle draws four main conclusions from her research findings: (1) the number of universities offering major graduate and undergraduate courses in ethnomusicology is very small; (2) some Canadian universities offer programs/courses related to ethnomusicology and folk music studies in a limited capacity, but could be further developed and expanded; (3) a few Canadian universities employ academics who, although trained in ethnomusicology, do not currently teach ethnomusicology for administrative and/or budgetary reasons; and (4) although there are many universities that do not offer music instruction at all, there is significant and wide-ranging interest in music and ethnomusicology across Canada, demonstrated by various campus activities.

Elson, Lise. 1972. “Un projet pilote: l’enseignement collectif du violon à l’Université.” Paper presented at the 1972 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting, McGill University, Montréal, QC, June 7-10, 1972.

(further information currently unavailable)

McKellar, Donald. 1972. “Sociomusicology: The Next Horizon for Music Education.” Paper presented at the 1972 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, McGill University, Montréal, QC, June 7-10, 1972.

(further information currently unavailable)

Patterson, Lawrence William Alexander. 1972. “Undergraduate Programs for Music Teacher Preparation in Canadian Colleges and Universities.” DME diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

In this dissertation, the author considers the status of music teacher education programs in Canada. Patterson surveyed both undergraduate music programs and the music components of education degrees with respect to program structure, faculty and administration personnel, and curriculum. In addition, Patterson conducted an evaluation of each program, in which program administrators and music faculty contributed to compiling appropriate criteria for evaluating music programs and assessed the strengths and weakness of their own programs. As indicated by the author, of great significance was the finding that choral music and music history tend to be the strongest aspects of music education programs and instrumental music tends to be weakest.

Trowsdale, G.C. 1972. “Public Institutions in Music Education: A Study of Poland’s Music Schools.” Paper presented at the 1972 Canadian University Music Society Annual Meeting in Coordination with the Congress of Learned Societies, McGill University, Montréal, QC, June 7-10, 1972.

(further information currently unavailable)

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Beckwith, John. 1971. “Aims and Methods for a Music-Theory Program.” CAUSM Journal 1 (1): 27-30.

In this article, Beckwith outlines the structure of a music theory program aimed at developing skills in writing, reading, playing, and listening to the types of music that students will most likely encounter in their future careers. Beckwith considers three major curricular components for the first two years of a four-year program: the first component is what Beckwith calls “basic immersion in musical phenomena,” the second is the study of the music and language of the common practice era, and the third is the introduction of twentieth-century music. For each of the three areas, he discusses curriculum content and learning activities. 

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O’Neill, Mary Elizabeth. 1968. “A Plan for the Development of a Curriculum in Music for Marianopolis College, Montreal Canada.” EdD diss., Columbia University. 

(further information currently unavailable)

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